Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade


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Common flavors of fruit vinegar include apple, blackcurrant , raspberry, quince , and tomato. Typically, the flavors of the original fruits remain in the final product. Most fruit vinegars are produced in Europe, where there is a market for high-price vinegars made solely from specific fruits as opposed to non-fruit vinegars that are infused with fruits or fruit flavors.

Persimmon vinegar , called gam sikcho , is common in South Korea. Jujube vinegar, called zaocu or hongzaocu , and wolfberry vinegar are produced in China. Apple cider vinegar is made from cider or apple must , and has a brownish-gold color. It is sometimes sold unfiltered and unpasteurized with the mother of vinegar present.

It can be diluted with fruit juice or water or sweetened usually with honey for consumption. A byproduct of commercial kiwifruit growing is a large amount of waste in the form of misshapen or otherwise-rejected fruit which may constitute up to 30 percent of the crop and kiwifruit pomace. One of the uses for pomace is the production of kiwifruit vinegar, produced commercially in New Zealand since at least the early s, and in China in Pomegranate vinegar is used widely in Israel as a dressing for salad , but also in meat stew and in dips.

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It is cloudy and medium brown in color, with a mild flavor. Vinegar made from dates is a traditional product of the Middle East , and used in Saudi Arabia and the Gulf countries. Coconut vinegar, made from fermented coconut water or sap, is used extensively in Southeast Asian cuisine notably the Philippines, where it is known as sukang tuba , as well as in some cuisines of India and Sri Lanka , especially Goan cuisine.

A cloudy white liquid, it has a particularly sharp, acidic taste with a slightly yeasty note. In the Philippines, there are other types of vinegar also made from palm sap. The two of the most widely produced are nipa palm vinegar sukang nipa or sukang sasa and kaong palm vinegar sukang kaong or sukang irok. Along with coconut and cane vinegar, they are the four main traditional vinegar types in the Philippines and are an important part of Filipino cuisine.

It has a citrusy flavor note to it and imparts a distinctly musky aroma. It is sweeter than all the other Philippine vinegar types and are commonly used in salad dressing.


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Balsamic vinegar is an aromatic aged vinegar produced in the Modena and Reggio Emilia provinces of Italy. The original product—traditional balsamic vinegar—is made from the concentrated juice, or must , of white Trebbiano grapes. It is dark brown, rich, sweet, and complex, with the finest grades being aged in successive casks made variously of oak, mulberry, chestnut, cherry, juniper, and ash wood.

Originally a costly product available to only the Italian upper classes, traditional balsamic vinegar is marked "tradizionale" or "DOC" to denote its Protected Designation of Origin status, and is aged for 12 to 25 years. A cheaper non-DOC commercial form described as "aceto balsamico di Modena" balsamic vinegar of Modena [21] became widely known and available around the world in the late 20th century, typically made with concentrated grape juice mixed with a strong vinegar, then coloured and slightly sweetened with caramel and sugar.

Balsamic vinegar is made from a grape product. It contains no balsam fruit. A high acidity level is somewhat hidden by the sweetness of the other ingredients, making it mellow. Vinegar made from sugarcane juice is most popular in the Philippines , in particular in the northern Ilocos Region where it is called sukang Iloko or sukang basi , although it also is produced in France and the United States. It ranges from dark yellow to golden brown in color, and has a mellow flavor, similar in some respects to rice vinegar, though with a somewhat "fresher" taste.

Because it contains no residual sugar, it is no sweeter than any other vinegar. In the Philippines it often is labeled as sukang maasim Tagalog for "sour vinegar". Cane vinegars from Ilocos are made in two different ways.


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  5. One way is to simply place sugar cane juice in large jars; it becomes sour by the direct action of bacteria on the sugar. The other way is through fermentation to produce a local wine known as basi. Low-quality basi is then allowed to undergo acetic acid fermentation that converts alcohol into acetic acid. Contaminated basi also becomes vinegar.

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    A white variation has become quite popular in Brazil in recent years, where it is the cheapest type of vinegar sold. It is now common for other types of vinegar made from wine, rice and apple cider to be sold mixed with cane vinegar to lower the cost. Sugarcane sirka is made from sugarcane juice in Punjab, India. During summer people put cane juice in earthenware pots with iron nails. The fermentation takes place due to the action of wild yeast. The cane juice is converted to vinegar having a blackish color.

    The sirka is used to preserve pickles and for flavoring curries. Chinese black vinegar is an aged product made from rice , wheat , millet , sorghum , or a combination thereof. It has an inky black color and a complex, malty flavor.

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    There is no fixed recipe, so some Chinese black vinegars may contain added sugar , spices, or caramel color. The most popular variety, Zhenjiang vinegar , originates in the city of Zhenjiang in Jiangsu Province , eastern China. Nowadays in Shanxi province, there are still some traditional vinegar workshops producing handmade vinegar which is aged for at least five years with a high acidity.

    Only the vinegar made in Taiyuan and some counties in Jinzhong and aged for at least three years is considered authentic Shanxi mature vinegar according to the latest national standard. A somewhat lighter form of black vinegar, made from rice, is produced in Japan, where it is called kurozu. Rice vinegar is most popular in the cuisines of East and Southeast Asia.

    It is available in "white" light yellow , red, and black varieties. The Japanese prefer a light rice vinegar for the preparation of sushi rice and salad dressings. Red rice vinegar traditionally is colored with red yeast rice. Black rice vinegar made with black glutinous rice is most popular in China, and it is also widely used in other East Asian countries. White rice vinegar has a mild acidity with a somewhat "flat" and uncomplex flavor.

    Some varieties of rice vinegar are sweetened or otherwise seasoned with spices or other added flavorings. Malt vinegar made from ale , also called alegar , [24] is made by malting barley , causing the starch in the grain to turn to maltose.

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    Then an ale is brewed from the maltose and allowed to turn into vinegar, which is then aged. In the United Kingdom and Canada, malt vinegar along with salt is a traditional seasoning for fish and chips. Some fish and chip shops replace it with non-brewed condiment. According to Canadian regulations, malt vinegar is defined as a vinegar that includes undistilled malt that has not yet undergone acetous fermentation. It must be dextro-rotary and cannot contain less than 1.


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    7. It may contain additional cereals or caramel. The first fermentation is sugar to alcohol and the second alcohol to acetic acid. Product made from chemically produced acetic acid cannot be called "vinegar" in the UK, where the term allowed is " Non-brewed condiment ". Sherry vinegar is linked to the production of sherry wines of Jerez.

      Dark mahogany in color, it is made exclusively from the acetic fermentation of wines. It is concentrated and has generous aromas, including a note of wood, ideal for vinaigrettes and flavoring various foods. As with wine, there is a considerable range in quality. Better-quality wine vinegars are matured in wood for up to two years, and exhibit a complex, mellow flavor. Wine vinegar tends to have a lower acidity than white or cider vinegars. More expensive wine vinegars are made from individual varieties of wine, such as champagne, sherry, or pinot gris.

      The term "distilled vinegar" as used in the United States called "spirit vinegar" in the UK, "white vinegar" in Canada [27] is something of a misnomer because it is not produced by distillation but by fermentation of distilled alcohol. This is variously known as distilled spirit, "virgin" vinegar, [28] or white vinegar, and is used in cooking, baking, meat preservation, and pickling , as well as for medicinal, laboratory, and cleaning purposes. It is sometimes derived from petroleum. White distilled vinegar can also be used for cleaning, and some is actually sold specifically for this purpose.

      Vinegar is commonly used in food preparation , in particular pickling liquids, vinaigrettes and other salad dressings. It is an ingredient in sauces , such as hot sauce , mustard, ketchup, and mayonnaise. Vinegar is sometimes used in chutneys. It is often used as a condiment on its own, or as a part of other condiments. Marinades often contain vinegar. Soups sometimes have vinegar added to them, as is the case with hot and sour soup. In terms of its shelf life , vinegar's acidic nature allows it to last indefinitely without the use of refrigeration.

      Several beverages are made using vinegar, for instance Posca in ancient Rome. The ancient Greek drink oxymel is made from vinegar and honey, and sekanjabin is a traditional Persian drink similar to oxymel. Other preparations, known colloquially as " shrubs ", range from simply mixing sugar water or honey water with small amounts of fruity vinegar, to making syrup by laying fruit or mint in vinegar for several days, then sieving off solid parts and adding considerable amounts of sugar.

      Some prefer to boil the "shrub" as a final step. These recipes have lost much of their popularity with the rise of carbonated beverages , such as soft drinks. Relatively small amounts of vinegar 2 to 4 tablespoons may reduce post-meal levels of blood glucose and insulin in people with and without diabetes. For millennia , folk medicine treatments have used vinegar, but there is no evidence from clinical research to support health claims of benefits for diabetes , weight loss , cancer or use as a probiotic.

      Twenty percent acetic acid vinegar can be used as a herbicide , [38] but acetic acid is not absorbed into root systems so the vinegar will only kill the top growth and perennial plants may reshoot.

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      Applying vinegar to common jellyfish stings deactivates the nematocysts , although not as effectively as hot water. Vinegar is not effective against lice [42]. White vinegar is often used as a household cleaning agent.

      For most uses, dilution with water is recommended for safety and to avoid damaging the surfaces being cleaned.

      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade
      Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade Balsamic Vinegars: Tradition, Technology, Trade

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