Testing should follow a clear plan. This means that test data should have been prepared prior to implementation. It is common for some test data to be identified during the analysis stage of the development process. A test plan will provide clear guidance on suitable test data that will be used during testing. To ensure that an appropriate range of data is tested it is common practice to follow the principles of comprehensive testing.
Comprehensive testing describes the process of testing normal, exceptional and extreme data. A program has been designed to store five scores between 1 and All of the scores are held as integers. Normal data is regarded as data that should be accepted and handled correctly. In this example any whole number between, but not including, 0 and 25 would be classed as normal data:. Exceptional data is data that should not be accepted but that should trigger feedback to the user. Sometimes data is exceptional because it is outside a set range. Exceptional data also includes data of a different data type.
The user should be informed that there is a problem with the data entered. Creating code that generates feedback to the user is known as error trapping. In this example the following values would be classed as exceptional data:.
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Extreme data is data that is on the limit of the acceptable range. In this example there are two values on the edge of the range:.
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N2 machine types are the newest generation general-purpose machine types that offer flexible sizing between 2 to 80 vCPUs and 0. These machine types also offer an overall performance improvement over N1 machine types. Workloads that can take advantage of the higher clock frequency are a good choice for N2 machine types. These workloads can get higher per-thread performance while benefiting from all the flexibility that a general-purpose machine type offers.
N2 machine types are only available in select zones and regions. The following list shows the available N2 predefined machine types. If none of the general-purpose predefined machine types match your needs, you can create a custom machine type with the number of vCPUs and amount of memory that you need for your instance. It costs slightly more to use a custom machine type than an equivalent predefined machine type, and there are still some limitations in the amount of memory and vCPUs you can select.
For more information, see Creating a VM instance with a custom machine type. Memory-optimized machine types are ideal for tasks that require intensive use of memory with higher memory-to-vCPU ratios than the N1 high-memory machine types.
Memory-optimized machine types are only available as predefined machine types. The following restrictions apply:. M1 machine types are the first generation memory-optimized machine types that offer 24 GB of memory per vCPU. This set of machine types comes in two types: m1-ultramem and m1-megamem. To see if ultramem or megamem machine types are available in a certain zone, see Available regions and zones.
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Long running usage requires purchasing a committed use contract. See Pricing page for more details. If the machine types above do not match your workloads, you can choose from the following list of machine types that have larger amounts of memory per vCPU. M2 ultramem machine types offer on-demand pricing for an evaluation period only. Compute-optimized machine types are ideal for compute-intensive workloads.
These machine types offer the highest performance per core on Compute Engine. Compute-optimized types are only available as predefined machine types and include the C2 machine types. C2 machine types offer much more computing power, run on a newer platform, and are generally more robust for compute-intensive workloads than the N1 high-CPU machine types.
Shared-core machine types provide one vCPU that is allowed to run for a portion of the time on a single hardware Hyper-thread on the host CPU running your instance. Shared-core instances can be more cost-effective for running small, non-resource intensive applications than standard, high-memory or high-CPU machine types. Bursting happens automatically when your instance requires more physical CPU than originally allocated.
During these spikes, your instance will opportunistically take advantage of available physical CPU in bursts. Note that bursts are not permanent and are only possible periodically. You can attach GPUs only to general-purpose N1 machine types. GPUs are not supported for other machine types. Except as otherwise noted, the content of this page is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.
For details, see our Site Policies. Last updated September 20, Google Cloud. Send feedback. Billing You are billed for the resources that a VM instance uses. Machine type families Machine types are divided into machine type families that are curated for specific workload types. The following primary machine types are offered on Compute Engine: General-purpose machine types. These machine types are available in two generations: The first generation N1 machine types. These machine types offer up to 96 vCPUs, 6.
Machine type families
The latest generation N2 machine types. Determining a machine type for your workload Use the table below to compare each category of machine type to determine which type is appropriate for your workload. Sustained-use discounts? Processors General-purpose N2 0.
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