All rights reserved. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract In vitro fertilization, popularly referred to as IVF, has captured the attention of the public since its sensational introduction in Keywords: IVF, assisted reproduction.
Introduction The birth of Louise Brown in was the culmination of decades of scientific research in reproductive medicine. Open in a separate window.
Figure 1. Timeline of major milestones in assisted reproductive technologies. The early days of IVF Prior to , women without functioning fallopian tubes were largely considered to be sterile by their physicians. Oocyte donation While advances in early IVF refined the technology for treating women with tubal disease, those with natural or premature ovarian failure had no effective fertility treatments until Figure 2.
Embryo cryopreservation Clinical and laboratory methodology used for ART continued to evolve and improve, and a surplus of embryos in excess to what is used or needed for the initial IVF treatment became increasingly commonplace. Refinements in technique: moving away from the operating room During the mids, efforts to simplify and improve success rates of assisted reproduction led to the development of gamete intrafallopian transfer GIFT where oocytes were laparoscopically retrieved and immediately transferred into fallopian tubes along with sperm Asch et al Figure 3.
Comparing techniques for embryo transfer Multiple studies in the early s comparing IVF, ZIFT, and GIFT often showed conflicting results due to multiple confounding variables inherent to different patient-selection criteria and the wide variation of practice used from clinic to clinic.
Addressing the needs of infertile men As IVF became more commonplace in the treatment of female infertility, male infertility remained a limiting factor to overall success. IVF and preimplantation genetic diagnosis Prior to , options to prevent transmission of genetic defects were limited to performing chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis and offering abortion if the fetus were found to be affected. Fertility preservation for cancer patients Contemporary investigative efforts continue to focus on providing even more couples the opportunity to have healthy children.
Conclusion In the three decades following the birth of Louise Brown, innovations in ART have overcome numerous seemingly insurmountable barriers to allow couples the chance to have families. Fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality in menopausal women aged 45—63 years.
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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis
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Partial zona dissection of the human oocyte: a nontraumatic method using micromanipulation to assist zona pellucida penetration.
Penn Fertility Care – Penn Medicine
A prospective controlled study of in-vitro fertilization, gamete intra-fallopian transfer and intrauterine insemination combined with superovulation. Improved implantation after preimplantation genetic diagnosis of aneuploidy. A fast and efficient method for simultaneous X and Y in situ hybridization of human blastomeres. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
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Induction of ovulation for in-vitro fertilisation using buserelin and gonadotropins. Pregnancy after fertilisation with human testicular spermatozoa. Prenat Diagn. By Mahnaz Ashrafi and Kiandokht Kiani. Ortega and Pablo Bosch. Boyer, P. Rodrigues, P.
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