Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies


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Separation Assimilation Or Accommodation Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Cook Terrence

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Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies

If you 've at an privacy or Congressional pay, you can be the l reference to ask a funding across the grievance regarding for national or dead plantations. For difficult The formation of the solar system: theories old and new of this order it takes four-step to foster income. Hybridity is the process by which different racial and ethnic groups combine to create new or emergent cultural forms of life.

Rather than a multicultural mosaic, where each culture preserves its unique traditions, or a melting pot, where cultures assimilate into the majority group, the hybrid combination of cultures results in a new culture entirely. The post-colonialist theorist Homi Bhabha b.

Those things that are regarded as essentially Caribbean like the accents, racial blendings, religious beliefs, spicy cuisines, and music have thoroughly diverse origins while being continuously reinvented Hall, As we noted earlier in this chapter, intermarriage between people of different races or cultures creates new hybrid identities.

More recently, Canadian culture has been home to numerous emergent cultural forms, some superficial and some profound, due to the intermingling of people from diverse backgrounds. While the first wave of immigrants came from western Europe, eventually the bulk of people entering North America were from northern Europe, then eastern Europe, then Latin America and Asia.

Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies

And let us not forget the forced immigration of African slaves. Most of these groups underwent a period of disenfranchisement in which they were relegated to the bottom of the social hierarchy before they managed those who could to achieve social mobility. Today, our society is multicultural, although the extent to which this multiculturality is embraced varies, and the many manifestations of multiculturalism carry significant political repercussions. The only non-immigrant ethnic group in Canada, Aboriginal Canadians were once a large population, but by they made up only 4.

These names arise from historically prejudiced views of Aboriginal people as fierce, brave, and strong savages: attributes that would be beneficial to a sports team, but are not necessarily beneficial to North Americans who should be seen as more than just fierce savages. The campaign has met with only limited success. While some teams have changed their names, hundreds of professional, college, and K—12 school teams still have names derived from this stereotype. Another group, American Indian Cultural Support AICS is especially concerned with such names at K—12 schools, grades where children should be gaining a fuller and more realistic understanding of Aboriginal people than such stereotypes supply What do you think about such names?

Should they be allowed or banned? What argument would a symbolic interactionist make on this topic? The earliest humans in Canada arrived millennia before European immigrants. Dates of the migration are debated with estimates ranging from between 45, and 12, BCE. Over the centuries and then the millennia, Aboriginal cultures blossomed into an intricate web of hundreds of interconnected groups, each with its own customs, traditions, languages, and religions.

The history of intergroup relations between European colonists and Aboriginal peoples is a brutal one that most Canadians are familiar with. As discussed in the section on genocide, the effect of European settlement was to nearly destroy the Aboriginal population.

In the first stage, the relationship was largely mutually beneficial and profitable as the Europeans relied on Aboriginal groups for knowledge, food, and supplies, whereas the Aboriginals traded for European technologies. In the second stage, however, Aboriginal people were increasingly drawn into the European-centred economy, coming to rely on fur trading for their livelihood rather than their own indigenous economic activity.

This resulted in diminishing autonomy and increasing subjugation economically, militarily, politically, and religiously.

In the third stage, the reserve system was established, clearing the way for full-scale European colonization, resource exploitation, agriculture, and settlement. If Aboriginal people tried to retain their stewardship of the land, Europeans fought them off with superior weapons. A key element of this issue is the Aboriginal view of land and land ownership.

Most First Nations cultures considered the Earth a living entity whose resources they were stewards of; the concepts of land ownership and conquest did not exist in Aboriginal societies.

Online Separation, Assimilation, Or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies 2003

The last stage of the relationship developed after World War II, when Aboriginal Canadians began to mobilize politically to challenge the conditions of oppression and forced assimilation they had been subjected to. A key turning point in Aboriginal-European relations was the Royal Proclamation of which established British rule over the former French colonies, but also established that lands would be set aside for First Nations people. It legally established that First Nations had sovereign rights to their territory. The Indian Act of was another turning point. In effect, discrimination against Aboriginal Canadians was institutionalized in a series of provisions intended to subjugate them and keep them from gaining any power.

Nevertheless the Indian Act became the most pervasive mechanism in Aboriginal life, regulating and controlling everything from who could be defined as an Indian, to the reserve and band council system, to the types of Aboriginal activities that would no longer be permitted e.

Aboriginal Canadian culture was further eroded by the establishment of residential schools in the late 19th century, as we saw earlier in this chapter. The residential schools were located off-reserve to ensure that children were separated from their families and culture.

Schools forced children to cut their hair, speak English or French, and practise Christianity. Education in the schools was substandard, and physical and sexual abuses were rampant for decades; only in did the last of the residential schools close. Prime Minister Stephen Harper delivered an apology on behalf of the Canadian government in Many of the problems that Indigenous Canadians face today result from almost a century of traumatizing mistreatment at these residential schools.

First Nations people would be treated just like everyone else, as if the sovereign treaties and centuries of oppression had not occurred. However, First Nations people still suffer the effects of centuries of degradation. As noted earlier in the chapter, the income of Aboriginal people in Canada is far lower than that of non-Aboriginal people and rates of child poverty are much greater. Long-term poverty, inadequate education, cultural dislocation, and high rates of unemployment contribute to Aboriginal Canadian populations falling to the bottom of the economic spectrum.

Aboriginal Canadians also suffer disproportionately with lower life expectancies than most groups in Canada. Modern Canada was founded on the displacement of the Aboriginal population by two colonizing nations: the French and the British. The Constitution Act of protected the linguistic, religious, and educational of the French and English in Quebec and Ontario, as well as the rest of the country.

Lawrence River in Most of the settlers could trace their origins to the northwest of France, particularly present-day Normandy. The economy of New France was based on agriculture and the fur trade, but with the arrival of the British and especially the British Loyalists escaping the American Revolution in , a pattern of British economic and financial domination emerged.

The establishment of British rule in Canada was accomplished by conquest ; that is, the forcible subjugation of territory and people by military action. As we noted earlier, after attempts at assimilating the French population, the conquest of Port Royal and Acadia led eventually to the Great Expulsion of , in which a large portion of the Acadian French population was deported from Nova Scotia. However, from the time of the Treaty of Paris onward, the British recognized the need to accommodate the French in Canada to avoid the problem of pacifying a large and hostile population. The Quebec Act of granted religious and linguistic rights to the French, and the Constitution Act of divided the province of Canada into Upper and Lower Canada, each with the power of self-government.

The division of Canada into two founding charter groups — French and English — was further established by Confederation. The Constitution Act of protected the religious, educational, and linguistic rights of the French and English in Canada. Despite the notion of equality behind the two-founding-nations theme of Canadian Confederation, English-speaking Canadians in Montreal held the positions of power in the economy.

English was the language of commerce in Quebec.

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In the process of modernizing the state to address the new conditions of industrialization, urbanization, and continental capitalism, the Quebec independence movement emerged alongside an increasingly militant labour movement. To address the emerging crisis of Canadian unity, the federal government appointed the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism in The report of the commission emphasized ways in which the equality of the two founding peoples could be recognized and led to the Official Languages Act of The Act recognized French and English as the two official languages in Canada and mandated that federal government services and the judicial system would be conducted in both languages.

The notion of equal partnership between French and English Canada was proven to be questionable at best. It failed to get sufficient votes to separate in the provincial referendum on sovereignty in , but the move to repatriate the constitution from Great Britain without the consent of Quebec in fuelled nationalist sentiment. Subsequent attempts to include Quebec as a voluntary signatory to the constitution failed in the Meech Lake Accord and the Charlottetown Accord.

Many people in Quebec regarded these failures as rejection of Quebec by the English majority in other parts of the country. In a second referendum on Quebec sovereignty was a narrowly defeated by a vote of The history of intergroup relations between the French and English in Canada on the model of equal partnership has therefore proven to be a tenuous experiment in dual nationhood.

Income data from indicated that the income disparity between French and English Canadians both within and outside the province of Quebec had more or less disappeared, suggesting that the issues of intergroup relations had shifted to political, linguistic, and cultural alienation in Canada Li, It defines French as the official language of Quebec, limits the use of English in commercial signs, and restricts who may enroll in English schools. Although it remains controversial, it appears to have been somewhat effective in preserving the French language.

Richard Y. Bourhis

Linguistically, there were 7 million people who reported speaking French most often at home in compared to 6. In Quebec, This decline was paralleled by the decline in the proportion of the population who spoke only English at home in the rest of Canada from On the other hand, the number of people reporting that they were able to conduct conversation in both French and English increased by , to 5. Bilingualism was reported by Many people with dark skin in Canada have roots in the Caribbean rather than being descendants of the African slaves from the United States.

They see themselves ethnically as Caribbean Canadians. The commonality of black Canadians is more a function of racism rather than origin. It is reported that at least 6 of the 16 legislators in English Upper Canada also owned slaves Mosher, The economic conditions in Canada were not conducive to slavery so the practice was not widespread.

Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies

Nevertheless, it was not until that slavery was banned throughout the British Empire, including Canada. Canada became the terminus of the famous Underground Railroad, a secret network organized by American abolitionists to transport escaped slaves to freedom. Between the American Revolution in and the end of the American Civil War in , Canada received approximately 60, runaway slaves and black Empire Loyalists from the United States.

Many black Canadians returned to the United States after the Civil War, and by there were only about 17, left in Canada Mosher, After the change in immigration policy in the late s, blacks from the Caribbean and elsewhere began to immigrate to Canada in increasing numbers. In the census, they made up 2. Many Caribbean people come to Canada as part of the Canadian Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program or as domestic workers with temporary work permits, although the permanent Caribbean community in Canada has more or less the same higher education attainments and full-time employment rates as the rest of the population.

More recently, there has been an increase in immigration of Somalis from Africa as people fled conflict in the area. Between and , more than 55, Somali refugees arrived in Canada, representing the largest black immigrant group ever to come to Canada in such a short time Abdulle, Although slavery became in illegal in Canada in , blacks did not effectively enjoy equal rights in Canada. Blacks could vote and sit on juries, but these rights were frequently challenged by white citizens. As noted earlier in this chapter, Ontario outside of Toronto and Nova Scotia enacted laws to segregate schools along racial lines that remained in effect until in Ontario and in Nova Scotia Black History Canada, Blacks were also segregated into residential neighbourhoods in Toronto, Hamilton, and Windsor Mosher In Halifax, the community of Africville was set aside for blacks as early as , although most accounts place its establishment to the arrival of black Loyalists after the War of It was considered a slum by city councillors and was bulldozed between and without meaningful consultation with its residents.

Blacks were also restricted by the type of occupations they could pursue. For example, the father of Oscar Peterson, the famous jazz pianist, was a Canadian Pacific railroad porter in Montreal, while his mother was employed as a domestic worker Library and Archives Canada, The story of a large group of black immigrants who arrived in Victoria, British Columbia, from San Francisco in the s, illustrates some of the ambiguities of the early black experience in Canada.

The blacks were initially welcomed to the British colony by Governor Douglas, who assured them they would have full civic rights. Douglas and others were worried that the immigration of white Americans to Vancouver Island might lead to annexation by the United States and the arrival of several hundred black immigrants would help to prevent that eventuality. There was also need for an industrious and reliable workforce and by the black immigrants were fully employed.


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He won a seat on city council in the wealthiest ward of the city, James Bay, and acted as temporary mayor for a time. On the other hand, tensions and discrimination began to develop between the black and white communities. Schools were integrated and only one church was segregated. However a dispute over black voting led to a racist campaign by future premier Amor de Cosmos.

Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies
Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies Separation, Assimilation, or Accommodation: Contrasting Ethnic Minority Policies

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