For example, we might look at hospital readmissions for discharged patients, especially elderly patients, to assess the extent to which the social network that is meant to serve them after 4 On the resource dependency model considered more generally see Davis and Cobb These organizations may be focused on several different policy domains— agriculture, health, and consumer safety—and functioning at different levels of government.
This dynamic chain coordination is somewhat different from the usual static conception of inter- organizational coordination. While the above coordination issues in the regulation of food quality are all to some extent associated with agriculture and food per se, food and agriculture issues must be associated with policy areas such as energy and the environment. For example, intensive agriculture that may be useful for producing the large quantities of food is energy intensive and also can have severe environmental effects. And with biomass as a potential source of energy, land may be diverted from food production to making ethanol or other renewable forms of energy.
The coordination of public sector organizations: shifting patterns of public management
Producing energy may be more profitable for the landowners who will have to worry less about spoilage, and also they and use the entire plant for production. That is, to consider adequately the question of providing sufficient and high quality food supplies at affordable prices requires the involvement of energy, environment, land use as well as increasingly, international policy actors. But the problem may be less with the hospital itself than with the linkages to social services. Therefore, the measures of success can be less on activity than on the extent to which policies do in fact take into account needs and priorities in other policies sectors.
That more integrated legal framework will still, of course, have to be implemented but producing a food policy that does indeed consider a range of alternative policy concerns will be the necessary first step to success. The above discussion has been premised on a notion of food policy as primarily directed toward the consumer of food. For farmers and food processors, on the other hand, the important goals of the policy area may be rather different.
Those different perspectives held by producers and consumers may be common in many policy areas, they also will constitute a locus for considering greater policy integration. The context for coordination and performance described above provides an ideal conceptual foundation for using a dynamic performance management approach Bianchi, to deal with the need of coordination and coherence in public policy design and implementation.
This approach appears in part in the literature on procedural policy instruments Howlett, This approach may help them to detect the risks of policy resistance Ghaffarzadegan et al, , i. First, the focus of such systems should not be on only the end-results, i. One should also focus on the performance drivers, i. Performance drivers should be measured, monitored and affected in the short run, in order to influence the achievement of targeted outcomes.
One should also outline the policies to adopt in order to affect the strategic resources i. Second, the relevant boundaries of performance management systems adopted by public sector organizations should not be limited to an institutional context. An outcome-based view of performance requires the use of proper measures that are able to gauge the long-term and wider impact of the implemented policies by a single player on a system that is usually much wider than the physical and juridical boundaries of a single institution.
This implies that an external i. This would further ensure the lifelong endurance of both each individual institution in a system, and of the system itself.
Shifting Patterns of Public Management
This dynamic complexity could be measured in relation to a variety of factors, such as: 1. Number of variables to manage and to take into account in policy-making; 3. Number of decision levels that are sequentially connected; 4. Diversity of issues characterizing different subsystems and policy-making fields associated with a same dynamic and complex system; 6.
Non-linear relations between causes and effects; 8. Number of policy trade-offs in time and space; 9. The two examples of coordinated performance discussed in the previous section can be helpful to sketch an outline of the challenges that the design and use of dynamic performance management systems should face to deal with social outcomes in different environments.
As commented earlier, the example of health and social services mainly implies the challenge to design performance management systems that are primarily focused on the ability of different policy makers to deliver value to the benefit of service users.
The dynamic and complex issues related to such context are mostly associated with the capability of different stakeholders to streamline their own policy implementation actions, so to consistently affect the desired outcomes. As shown in fig. Without an alignment in policy design by such players, the outcomes generated by service delivery could be poorer than the expectations of both the users and policy makers; this would reflect into inefficiency and lack of generated public value.
In particular, it shows the role of two performance drivers, i. Such measures contribute to build up the stock of total collaborations, which in turn may affect the investigated outcomes changes in pollution and employment rates. As said, in this case — in respect to the previous one — the focus of the performance management model would be more on service delivery than on policy integration.
Likewise, improved and shared information systems — as well as the use of rewards systems more inclined to foster collaborative approaches — would be likely to improve referral rates across agencies outcome performance measures. Summary and Conclusions In summary, this paper will make some initial steps in conceptualizing performance measurements for coordination and demonstrate how they be applied in two policy areas with different requirements for coordination. To this end, a dynamic performance management approach is suggested, and such perspective is used to frame the two investigated policy areas.
It also begins to link processes of policymaking, and drivers of performance, with the final outcomes of policymaking While not actually measuring that coordination in actual policymaking situations, it will provide the foundation for further development of this important dimension of performance management.
The Coordination of Public Sector Organizations: Shifting Patterns of Public Management
References: Bianchi, C. Bianchi, C. Bogdanor, V. Joined-Up Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Bouckaert, G. Peters, and K. Basingstoke: Macmillan. And J. Briassoulis, H.
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Government Strategy 8. Establishing Central Priorities 7. Setting Limits on Ministerial Action 6. Arbitration of Policy Differences 5. Search for Agreement among Ministers 4. Avoiding Divergences among Ministers 3. Consultation with Other Ministers Feedback 2. Communication with Other Ministers Information Exchange 1. The framework facilitates a holistic understanding of the business, since it shows an integrated view of the business, its supply of goods or services value proposition , activities, relationships, customers, partners, distribution channels, resources, and finances costs and revenues.
Source: Osterwalder and Pigneur Osborne suggests Public Governance is a novel paradigm that develops new ingredients not present in the orthodox bureaucratic administration or in the new public management while Aguilar argues that Public Governance is made of multi-paradigmatic elements. Regardless being a new or a collage of elements pertaining to previous paradigms, Bevir defines governance as a process of governing - a convenient treatment for the purposes of this paper, too, which addresses the representation of public ventures as processes.
Along these lines, Martins represent the governance process based on four elements of a governance chain, illustrated in Figure 3. Source: Martins Seen from this perspective, public governance is a process of generating public value from certain institutional capacities and qualities; collaboration between public and private agents in the co-production of services, policies, and public goods; and performance improvement. Moreover, these four dimensions overlap. Public value is the key element of the governance process, representing the value that citizens attribute to services and policies received from government - a kind of return on taxes paid MOORE, But public value can also refers to civic and republican values, satisfaction and quality perceptions what the public values and consequently would give something in return for , value-added surplus through innovation processes, assets or intangible heritage represented by public institutions, and results of public policies formulated on the basis of refined preferences MOORE and BENINGTON, From a pragmatic and transformational perspective, governance is a process that can and should be optimized.
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